1. Monetary policy design
The National Bank of the Republic of North Macedonia is a central bank, independent in the performance of its functions, whose primary objective is to maintain price stability. The National Bank supports the economic policy and the financial stability of the country, without jeopardizing the accomplishment of its primary objective, by observing the market economy principles. The National Bank, in line with its legally set functions, designs and conducts the monetary policy. At the end of the current year, the National Bank, within the previously defined macroeconomic policy framework, prepares a Monetary Developments Projection for the following year, which is subsequently adopted by the the National Bank Council.
2. Monetary policy objectives
Maintenance of price stability is the primary objective of the National Bank specified by law. Establishment of this objective is in line with the empirically confirmed findings that price stability creates the most favorable macroeconomic environment for economic development sustainable in a long run. Until end 1999, inflation in the country was measured through the retail price index, and since 2000 it has been measured through the consumer price index. For achieving its ultimate objective, the National Bank establishes an intermediary objective of the monetary policy. Thus, from April 1992 through September 1995, the National Bank applied the strategy of targeting the money supply M1, as an intermediary objective of the monetary policy. In October 1995, the National Bank started implementing the monetary strategy of targeting the nominal exchange rate of the Denar against the Deutsche Mark, and since January 2002 - against the Euro. Accordingly, intermediary objective of the monetary policy is the maintenance of the Denar exchange rate stability. The implementation of the exchange rate targeting strategy results from a/ the significance of the exchange rate in a small and open economy; b/ the need of nominal anchor for maintenance of credibility; c/ the high level of euroization, and d/ the transparency of the exchange rate policy and possibility to be daily followed by the economic agents.
3. Interest rate policy and transmission mechanism
When the monetary policy is focused on maintaining Denar exchange rate stability, the interest rates and money supply are dependent categories, determined by the achievement of the intermediary objective. The National Bank, through its interest rate policy, sends monetary signals to banks, and thus, tends to influence their lending and deposit interest rates. Currently, the interest rate achieved at the CB bills auctions is regarded as key interest rate of the National Bank.